What Are Micronutrients And Macronutrients?

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Obi Obadike

Obi Obadike

Celebrity Fitness & Nutrition Expert, CFT, SFN, M.S. Founder & CEO – Ethical Inc.
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What are micronutrients and macronutrients? Micronutrients are one of the most important groups of essential nutrients your body readily needs. It would be difficult to function in life without it. Vitamins are essential for energy production, immune support, brain development, etc. Minerals are vital for bone health, fluid balance, growth, etc.

We obtain our vitamins from foods because your bodies just can’t make vitamins and minerals by itself. And that is why food is the most important medicine you can ever put into your body. Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals, and macronutrients are proteins, carbs, and fats. And that is the distinct clear difference between the two.

The 4 categories of vitamins and minerals are water soluble vitamins, fat soluble vitamins, trace minerals and macrominerals. Water soluble vitamins is the type of vitamins that dissolve in water.

What Are Micronutrients And Macronutrients?

Water Soluble Vitamins

  • Vitamin B1, (thiamine) that helps convert nutrients into energy. The food sources that come from this vitamin are whole grains, meat, and fish.
  • Vitamin B2, (riboflavin), that helps with energy function and cell function. The food sources are eggs and milk.
  • Vitamin B3, (niacin), it drives the production of food. The food sources are green vegetables, beans, and meat.
  • Vitamin B5, (pantothenic acid), it helps with fatty acid production. The food sources are mushrooms, tuna, avocado.
  • Vitamin B7, (biotin), functions as a role in the metabolism of amino acids and glucose. The food sources are spinach, egg, sweet potatoes.
  • Vitamin B12, (cobalamin), helps with the nervous system and brain function. The food sources are fish and meat.

Fat Soluble Vitamins

  • Vitamin A- It assists with proper vision.
  • Vitamin D- It helps with supporting immune function and bone growth health.
  • Vitamin E- It promotes immune function and protect cells from any damage.
  • Vitamin K- It assists with bone development.

What are Macrominerals?

  • Calcium– This helps with the function of bone and teeth.
  • Sodium– This helps to aid the fluid balance and blood pressure.
  • Phosphorus– This assist with the cell and bone membrane structure.
  • Potassium– This is an electrolyte that helps with muscle function and nerve transmission.
  • Sulfur-It is part of about every living tissue.
  • Chloride- It helps to maintain fluid balance and is used to create digestive fluid.

What Are Trace Minerals?

Trace minerals are smaller than macro minerals and some of its functions are:

  • Iron- Some of the food sources that iron comes from are spinach, white beans.
  • Copper- The food sources of copper are cashews and crabs.
  • Zinc- The food sources are from zinc, oysters, and crab.
  • Selenium- These foods come from sardines and ham.
  • Manganese- This comes from peanuts and pecans.
  • Fluoride- This comes from fruit juice and water.

The recommended food sources and the vitamins and minerals vary and is not set in stone. Micronutrients function as antioxidants which helps to fight off diseases. That is why it is important to never be deficient in it.

Who Are The Most Deficient In These Micronutrients?

  • The micronutrients that most Americans are deficient in is iron, Vitamin B-12, Vitamin A, and calcium.
  • Studies have shown more than 70% of American are deficient in Vitamin D due to a lack of sunlight.
  • The deficiency in Vitamin B-12 is among vegetarians who don’t eat animal products.
  • The deficiency in iron is women who are menstruating and preschool children.

“Micronutrients function as antioxidants which helps to fight off diseases. That is why it is important to never be deficient in it.”- Celebrity Fitness & Nutrition Expert Obi Obadike

The Bottom Line is if you want to get enough micronutrients and macronutrients to be healthy then your diet needs to be balanced.

If you have any interest in trying any of our Ethical Supplement products to help you heighten your immune system or assist you with your fitness or health goals.

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  1. Ginde, A. A., Liu, M. C., & Camargo, C. A., Jr (2009). Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988-2004. Archives of internal medicine169(6), 626–632.
  2. Pawlak R, Parrott SJ, Raj S, Cullum-Dugan D, Lucus D. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians? Nutr Rev. 2013 Feb;71(2):110-7. doi: 10.1111/nure.12001. Epub 2013 Jan 2. PMID: 23356638.
  3. Waldmann A, Koschizke JW, Leitzmann C, Hahn A. Dietary iron intake and iron status of German female vegans: results of the German vegan study. Ann Nutr Metab. 2004;48(2):103-8. doi: 10.1159/000077045. Epub 2004 Feb 25. PMID: 14988640.
  4. Levi F, Pasche C, Lucchini F, La Vecchia C. Dietary intake of selected micronutrients and breast-cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2001 Jan 15;91(2):260-3. doi: 10.1002/1097-0215(200002)9999:9999<::aid-ijc1041>;2-r. PMID: 11146455.
  5. Bourre JM. Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: micronutrients. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006 Sep-Oct;10(5):377-85. PMID: 17066209.

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